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In Neural networks : the official journal of the International Neural Network Society

Recently, convolutional neural networks (CNNs)-based facial landmark detection methods have achieved great success. However, most of existing CNN-based facial landmark detection methods have not attempted to activate multiple correlated facial parts and learn different semantic features from them that they can not accurately model the relationships among the local details and can not fully explore more discriminative and fine semantic features, thus they suffer from partial occlusions and large pose variations. To address these problems, we propose a cross-order cross-semantic deep network (CCDN) to boost the semantic features learning for robust facial landmark detection. Specifically, a cross-order two-squeeze multi-excitation (CTM) module is proposed to introduce the cross-order channel correlations for more discriminative representations learning and multiple attention-specific part activation. Moreover, a novel cross-order cross-semantic (COCS) regularizer is designed to drive the network to learn cross-order cross-semantic features from different activation for facial landmark detection. It is interesting to show that by integrating the CTM module and COCS regularizer, the proposed CCDN can effectively activate and learn more fine and complementary cross-order cross-semantic features to improve the accuracy of facial landmark detection under extremely challenging scenarios. Experimental results on challenging benchmark datasets demonstrate the superiority of our CCDN over state-of-the-art facial landmark detection methods.

Wan Jun, Lai Zhihui, Shen Linlin, Zhou Jie, Gao Can, Xiao Gang, Hou Xianxu


Feature correlations, Heavy occlusions, Landmark detection, Large poses, Semantic feature