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In Clinical & translational immunology

The tumor microenvironment is an integral player in cancer initiation, tumor progression, response and resistance to anti-cancer therapy. Understanding the complex interactions of tumor immune architecture (referred to as 'immune contexture') has therefore become increasingly desirable to guide our approach to patient selection, clinical trial design, combination therapies, and patient management. Quantitative image analysis based on multiplexed fluorescence immunohistochemistry and deep learning technologies are rapidly developing to enable researchers to interrogate complex information from the tumor microenvironment and find predictive insights into treatment response. Herein, we discuss current developments in multiplexed fluorescence immunohistochemistry for immune contexture analysis, and their application in immuno-oncology, and discuss challenges to effectively use this technology in clinical settings. We also present a multiplexed image analysis workflow to analyse fluorescence multiplexed stained tumor sections using the Vectra Automated Digital Pathology System together with FCS express flow cytometry software. The benefit of this strategy is that the spectral unmixing accurately generates and analyses complex arrays of multiple biomarkers, which can be helpful for diagnosis, risk stratification, and guiding clinical management of oncology patients.

Shakya Reshma, Nguyen Tam Hong, Waterhouse Nigel, Khanna Rajiv


FCS express image cytometry, immune profiling, multiplexed fluorescent immunohistochemistry, quantitative digital pathology, tumor microenvironment, vectra