In Current problems in diagnostic radiology
Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains the most common cardiovascular disease, accounting for 6% of all Emergency Department visits and 27% of all Emergency Department hospitalizations.1 Invasive coronary angiography with fractional flow reserve (FFR) remains the gold standard to assess for hemodynamically stenosis in CAD patients. However, for low- and intermediate-risk patients, noninvasive modalities have started to gain favor as patients with stable CAD who received optimal medical therapy did as well as patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention.2 This led to the incorporation of FFRCT. cCTA provides good spatial resolution for evaluating stenosis. FFR provides additional information regarding whether the stenosis is hemodynamically significant. FFR is the ratio of maximum blood flow in a stenotic artery to the maximum blood flow through that artery without stenosis.3 Computational fluid dynamics involved in FFRCT is based on Navier-Stokes equations, allowing the assessment of pressure and flow across coronary arteries. Limitations do exist with FFRCT which includes false-positive results due to step artifact and left ventricular hypertrophy, as well as manual segmentation and ostial stenosis, which can cause false-negative results. However, there are improvements on the horizon including artificial intelligence-driven computation of FFR and the utilization of virtual stenting for surgical planning. The purpose of this review is to describe the clinical validation, underlying mechanism, and implementation of FFRCT.
Shah Neal R, Pierce Jonathan D, Kikano Elias G, Rahnemai-Azar Amir Ata, Gilkeson Robert C, Gupta Amit