In Expert systems with applications
The aim of this paper is the generation of a time-series based statistical data-driven procedure in order to track an outbreak. At first are used univariate time series models in order to predict the evolution of the reported cases. Moreover, are considered combinations of the models in order to provide more accurate and robust results. Additionally, statistical probability distributions are considered in order to generate future scenarios. Final step is the build and use of an epidemiological model (tSIR) and the calculation of an epidemiological ratio (R0) for estimating the termination of the outbreak. The time series models include Exponential Smoothing and ARIMA approaches from the classical models, also Feed-Forward Artificial Neural Networks and Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines from the machine learning toolbox. Combinations include simple mean, Newbolt-Granger and Bates-Granger approaches. Finally, the tSIR model and the R0 ratio are used for estimating the spread and the reversion of the pandemic. The suggested procedure is used to track the COVID-19 epidemic in Greece. This epidemic has appeared in China in December 2019 and has been widespread since then to all over the world. Greece is the center of this empirical study as is considered an early successful paradigm of resistance against the virus.
Classical time series models, Forecast combinations, Machine learning approaches, Time series forecasting, tSIR epidemiological model