PURPOSE : To elucidate the effect of deep learning-based computer-assisted detection (CAD) on the performance of different-level physicians in detecting intracranial haemorrhage using CT.
METHODS : A total of 40 head CT datasets (normal, 16; haemorrhagic, 24) were evaluated by 15 physicians (5 board-certificated radiologists, 5 radiology residents, and 5 medical interns). The physicians attended 2 reading sessions without and with CAD. All physicians annotated the haemorrhagic regions with a degree of confidence, and the reading time was recorded in each case. Our CAD system was developed using 433 patients' head CT images (normal, 203; haemorrhagic, 230), and haemorrhage rates were displayed as corresponding probability heat maps using U-Net and a machine learning-based false-positive removal method. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and figure of merit (FOM) were calculated based on the annotations and confidence levels.
RESULTS : In patient-based evaluation, the mean accuracy of all physicians significantly increased from 83.7 to 89.7% (p < 0.001) after using CAD. Additionally, accuracies of board-certificated radiologists, radiology residents, and interns were 92.5, 82.5, and 76.0% without CAD and 97.5, 90.5, and 81.0% with CAD, respectively. The mean FOM of all physicians increased from 0.78 to 0.82 (p = 0.004) after using CAD. The reading time was significantly lower when CAD (43 s) was used than when it was not (68 s, p < 0.001) for all physicians.
CONCLUSION : The CAD system developed using deep learning significantly improved the diagnostic performance and reduced the reading time among all physicians in detecting intracranial haemorrhage.
Watanabe Yoshiyuki, Tanaka Takahiro, Nishida Atsushi, Takahashi Hiroto, Fujiwara Masahiro, Fujiwara Takuya, Arisawa Atsuko, Yano Hiroki, Tomiyama Noriyuki, Nakamura Hajime, Todo Kenichi, Yoshiya Kazuhisa
Computed tomography, Deep learning, Diagnosis, Efficacy, Intracranial haemorrhage, Retrospective