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In Frontiers in oncology

Background : The grading and pathologic biomarkers of glioma has important guiding significance for the individual treatment. In clinical, it is often necessary to obtain tumor samples through invasive operation for pathological diagnosis. The present study aimed to use conventional machine learning algorithms to predict the tumor grades and pathologic biomarkers on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data.

Methods : The present study retrospectively collected a dataset of 367 glioma patients, who had pathological reports and underwent MRI scans between October 2013 and March 2019. The radiomic features were extracted from enhanced MRI images, and three frequently-used machine-learning models of LC, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Random Forests (RF) were built for four predictive tasks: (1) glioma grades, (2) Ki67 expression level, (3) GFAP expression level, and (4) S100 expression level in gliomas. Each sub dataset was split into training and testing sets at a ratio of 4:1. The training sets were used for training and tuning models. The testing sets were used for evaluating models. According to the area under curve (AUC) and accuracy, the best classifier was chosen for each task.

Results : The RF algorithm was found to be stable and consistently performed better than Logistic Regression and SVM for all the tasks. The RF classifier on glioma grades achieved a predictive performance (AUC: 0.79, accuracy: 0.81). The RF classifier also achieved a predictive performance on the Ki67 expression (AUC: 0.85, accuracy: 0.80). The AUC and accuracy score for the GFAP classifier were 0.72 and 0.81. The AUC and accuracy score for S100 expression levels are 0.60 and 0.91.

Conclusion : The machine-learning based radiomics approach can provide a non-invasive method for the prediction of glioma grades and expression levels of multiple pathologic biomarkers, preoperatively, with favorable predictive accuracy and stability.

Gao Min, Huang Siying, Pan Xuequn, Liao Xuan, Yang Ru, Liu Jun


MRI, biomarkers, glioma, machine learning, radiomics