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In Radiology ; h5-index 91.0

Background Large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke is one of the most time-sensitive diagnoses in medicine and requires emergent endovascular therapy to reduce morbidity and mortality. Leveraging recent advances in deep learning may facilitate rapid detection and reduce time to treatment. Purpose To develop a convolutional neural network to detect LVOs at multiphase CT angiography. Materials and Methods This multicenter retrospective study evaluated 540 adults with CT angiography examinations for suspected acute ischemic stroke from February 2017 to June 2018. Examinations positive for LVO (n = 270) were confirmed by catheter angiography and LVO-negative examinations (n = 270) were confirmed through review of clinical and radiology reports. Preprocessing of the CT angiography examinations included vasculature segmentation and the creation of maximum intensity projection images to emphasize the contrast agent-enhanced vasculature. Seven experiments were performed by using combinations of the three phases (arterial, phase 1; peak venous, phase 2; and late venous, phase 3) of the CT angiography. Model performance was evaluated on the held-out test set. Metrics included area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity. Results The test set included 62 patients (mean age, 69.5 years; 48% women). Single-phase CT angiography achieved an AUC of 0.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63, 0.85) with sensitivity of 77% (24 of 31; 95% CI: 59%, 89%) and specificity of 71% (22 of 31; 95% CI: 53%, 84%). Phases 1, 2, and 3 together achieved an AUC of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.96), sensitivity of 100% (31 of 31; 95% CI: 99%, 100%), and specificity of 77% (24 of 31; 95% CI: 59%, 89%), a statistically significant improvement relative to single-phase CT angiography (P = .01). Likewise, phases 1 and 3 and phases 2 and 3 also demonstrated improved fit relative to single phase (P = .03). Conclusion This deep learning model was able to detect the presence of large vessel occlusion and its diagnostic performance was enhanced by using delayed phases at multiphase CT angiography examinations. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Ospel and Goyal in this issue.

Stib Matthew T, Vasquez Justin, Dong Mary P, Kim Yun Ho, Subzwari Sumera S, Triedman Harold J, Wang Amy, Wang Hsin-Lei Charlene, Yao Anthony D, Jayaraman Mahesh, Boxerman Jerrold L, Eickhoff Carsten, Cetintemel Ugur, Baird Grayson L, McTaggart Ryan A