In European radiology ; h5-index 62.0
OBJECTIVES : To develop and evaluate a deep learning algorithm for fully automated detection of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)-compatible cholangiographic changes on three-dimensional magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (3D-MRCP) images.
METHODS : The datasets of 428 patients (n = 205 with confirmed diagnosis of PSC; n = 223 non-PSC patients) referred for MRI including MRCP were included in this retrospective IRB-approved study. Datasets were randomly assigned to a training (n = 386) and a validation group (n = 42). For each case, 20 uniformly distributed axial MRCP rotations and a subsequent maximum intensity projection (MIP) were calculated, resulting in a training database of 7720 images and a validation database of 840 images. Then, a pre-trained Inception ResNet was implemented which was conclusively fine-tuned (learning rate 10-3).
RESULTS : Applying an ensemble strategy (by binning of the 20 axial projections), the mean absolute error (MAE) of the developed deep learning algorithm for detection of PSC-compatible cholangiographic changes was lowered from 21 to 7.1%. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for detection of these changes were 95.0%, 90.9%, 90.5%, and 95.2% respectively.
CONCLUSIONS : The results of this study demonstrate the feasibility of transfer learning in combination with extensive image augmentation to detect PSC-compatible cholangiographic changes on 3D-MRCP images with a high sensitivity and a low MAE. Further validation with more and multicentric data is now desirable, as it is known that neural networks tend to overfit the characteristics of the dataset.
KEY POINTS : • The described machine learning algorithm is able to detect PSC-compatible cholangiographic changes on 3D-MRCP images with high accuracy. • The generation of 2D projections from 3D datasets enabled the implementation of an ensemble strategy to boost inference performance.
Ringe Kristina I, Vo Chieu Van Dai, Wacker Frank, Lenzen Henrike, Manns Michael P, Hundt Christian, Schmidt Bertil, Winther Hinrich B
Cholangiography, Deep learning, Machine learning, Sclerosing cholangitis