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In Journal of psychiatric research ; h5-index 59.0

BACKGROUND : Behavioral observations support clinical in-depth phenotyping but phenotyping and pattern recognition are affected by training background. As Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Restless Legs syndrome/Willis Ekbom disease and medication induced activation syndromes (including increased irritability and/or akathisia), present with hyperactive-behaviors with hyper-arousability and/or hypermotor-restlessness (H-behaviors), we first developed a non-interpretative, neutral pictogram-guided phenotyping language (PG-PL) for describing body-segment movements during sitting (Data in Brief).

METHODOLOGY & RESULTS : The PG-PL was applied for annotating 12 1-min sitting-videos (inter-observer agreements >85%->97%) and these manual annotations were used as a ground truth to develop an automated algorithm using OpenPose, which locates skeletal landmarks in 2D video. We evaluated the algorithm's performance against the ground truth by computing the area under the receiver operator curve (>0.79 for the legs, arms, and feet, but 0.65 for the head). While our pixel displacement algorithm performed well for the legs, arms, and feet, it predicted head motion less well, indicating the need for further investigations.

CONCLUSION : This first automated analysis algorithm allows to start the discussion about distinct phenotypical characteristics of H-behaviors during structured behavioral observations and may support differential diagnostic considerations via in-depth phenotyping of sitting behaviors and, in consequence, of better treatment concepts.

Beyzaei Nadia, Bao Seraph, Bu Yanyun, Hung Linus, Hussaina Hebah, Maher Khaola Safia, Chan Melvin, Garn Heinrich, Kloesch Gerhard, Kohn Bernhard, Kuzeljevic Boris, McWilliams Scout, Spruyt Karen, Tse Emmanuel, Machiel Van der Loos Hendrik F, Kuo Calvin, Ipsiroglu Osman S


Adverse drug reactions, Misdiagnosis, Movement disorders, Over-medication, Sleep-related movement disorders