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In IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics

Pneumothorax is potentially a life-threatening disease that requires urgent diagnosis and treatment. The chest X-ray is the diagnostic modality of choice when the pneumothorax is suspected. Computer-aided diagnosis of pneumothorax has got a dramatic boost in the last years due to deep learning advances and the first public pneumothorax diagnosis competition with 15257 chest X-rays manually annotated by a team of 19 radiologists. This paper presents one of the top frameworks that participated in the competition. The framework investigates the benefits of combining the Unet convolutional neural network with various backbones, namely ResNet34, SE-ResNext50, SE-ResNext101, and DenseNet121. The paper presents a step-by-step instruction for the framework application, including data augmentation, and different pre- and post-processing steps. The performance of the framework was of 0.8574 measured in terms of the Dice coefficient. The second contribution of the paper is the comparison of the deep learning framework against three experienced radiologists on the pneumothorax detection and segmentation on challenging X-rays. We also evaluated how diagnostic confidence of radiologists affect the accuracy of the diagnosis and found out that the deep learning framework and radiologists find same X-rays to be easy/difficult to analyze (p-value <1e4). Finally, the methodology of all top-performing teams from the competition leaderboard was analyzed to find the consistent methodological patterns of accurate pneumothorax detection and segmentation.

Tolkachev Alexey, Sirazitdinov Ilyas, Kholiavchenko Maksym, Mustafaev Tamerlan, Ibragimov Bulat