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In Microscopy (Oxford, England)

In this study, a noise-reduction technique for series low-dose electron holograms using tensor decomposition is demonstrated through simulation. We treated an entire dataset of the series holograms with Poisson noise as a third-order tensor, which is a stack of two-dimensional holograms. The third-order tensor, which is decomposed into a core tensor and three factor matrices, is approximated as a lower-rank tensor using only noise-free principal components. This technique is applied to simulated holograms by assuming a p-n junction in a semiconductor sample. The peak signal-to-noise ratios of the holograms and the reconstructed phase maps have been improved significantly using tensor decomposition. Moreover, the proposed method was applied to a more practical situation of time-resolved in situ electron holography by considering a non-uniform fringe contrast and fringe drift relative to the sample. The accuracy and precision of the reconstructed phase maps were quantitatively evaluated to demonstrate its effectiveness for in situ experiments and low-dose experiments on beam-sensitive materials.

Nomura Yuki, Yamamoto Kazuo, Anada Satoshi, Hirayama Tsukasa, Igaki Emiko, Saitoh Koh


electron holography, image denoising, low-dose imaging, machine learning, tensor decomposition, transmission electron microscopy