Receive a weekly summary and discussion of the top papers of the week by leading researchers in the field.

In Experimental & molecular medicine

The human microbiome has been recently associated with human health and disease. Brain tumors (BTs) are a particularly difficult condition to directly link to the microbiome, as microorganisms cannot generally cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, some nanosized extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from microorganisms can cross the BBB and enter the brain. Therefore, we conducted metagenomic analysis of microbial EVs in both serum (152 BT patients and 198 healthy controls (HC)) and brain tissue (5 BT patients and 5 HC) samples based on the V3-V4 regions of 16S rDNA. We then developed diagnostic models through logistic regression and machine learning algorithms using serum EV metagenomic data to assess the ability of various dietary supplements to reduce BT risk in vivo. Models incorporating the stepwise method and the linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) method yielded 12 and 29 significant genera as potential biomarkers, respectively. Models using the selected biomarkers yielded areas under the curves (AUCs) >0.93, and the model using machine learning resulted in an AUC of 0.99. In addition, Dialister and [Eubacterium] rectale were significantly lower in both blood and tissue samples of BT patients than in those of HCs. In vivo tests showed that BT risk was decreased through the addition of sorghum, brown rice oil, and garlic but conversely increased by the addition of bellflower and pear. In conclusion, serum EV metagenomics shows promise as a rich data source for highly accurate detection of BT risk, and several foods have potential for mitigating BT risk.

Yang Jinho, Moon Hyo Eun, Park Hyung Woo, McDowell Andrea, Shin Tae-Seop, Jee Young-Koo, Kym Sungmin, Paek Sun Ha, Kim Yoon-Keun