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In BMC medical informatics and decision making ; h5-index 38.0

BACKGROUND : Breast cancer is the most prevalent and among the most deadly cancers in females. Patients with breast cancer have highly variable survival lengths, indicating a need to identify prognostic biomarkers for personalized diagnosis and treatment. With the development of new technologies such as next-generation sequencing, multi-omics information are becoming available for a more thorough evaluation of a patient's condition. In this study, we aim to improve breast cancer overall survival prediction by integrating multi-omics data (e.g., gene expression, DNA methylation, miRNA expression, and copy number variations (CNVs)).

METHODS : Motivated by multi-view learning, we propose a novel strategy to integrate multi-omics data for breast cancer survival prediction by applying complementary and consensus principles. The complementary principle assumes each -omics data contains modality-unique information. To preserve such information, we develop a concatenation autoencoder (ConcatAE) that concatenates the hidden features learned from each modality for integration. The consensus principle assumes that the disagreements among modalities upper bound the model errors. To get rid of the noises or discrepancies among modalities, we develop a cross-modality autoencoder (CrossAE) to maximize the agreement among modalities to achieve a modality-invariant representation. We first validate the effectiveness of our proposed models on the MNIST simulated data. We then apply these models to the TCCA breast cancer multi-omics data for overall survival prediction.

RESULTS : For breast cancer overall survival prediction, the integration of DNA methylation and miRNA expression achieves the best overall performance of 0.641 ± 0.031 with ConcatAE, and 0.63 ± 0.081 with CrossAE. Both strategies outperform baseline single-modality models using only DNA methylation (0.583 ± 0.058) or miRNA expression (0.616 ± 0.057).

CONCLUSIONS : In conclusion, we achieve improved overall survival prediction performance by utilizing either the complementary or consensus information among multi-omics data. The proposed ConcatAE and CrossAE models can inspire future deep representation-based multi-omics integration techniques. We believe these novel multi-omics integration models can benefit the personalized diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer patients.

Tong Li, Mitchel Jonathan, Chatlin Kevin, Wang May D

2020-Sep-15

Breast Cancer, Deep learning, Multi-omics integration, Survival analysis