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In The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society

Advances in reagents, methodologies, analytic platforms, and tools have resulted in a dramatic transformation of the research pathology laboratory. These advances have increased our ability to efficiently generate substantial volumes of data on the expression and accumulation of mRNA, proteins, carbohydrates, signaling pathways, cells, and structures in healthy and diseased tissues that are objective, quantitative, reproducible, and suitable for statistical analysis. The goal of this review is to identify and present how to acquire the critical information required to measure changes in tissues. Included is a brief overview of two morphometric techniques, image analysis and stereology, and the use of artificial intelligence to classify cells and identify hidden patterns and relationships in digital images. In addition, we explore the importance of preanalytical factors in generating high-quality data. This review focuses on techniques we have used to measure proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and immune cells in tissues using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to demonstrate the various morphometric techniques. When performed correctly, quantitative digital pathology is a powerful tool that provides unbiased quantitative data that are difficult to obtain with other methods.

Davis A Sally, Chang Mary Y, Brune Jourdan E, Hallstrand Teal S, Johnson Brian, Lindhartsen Sarah, Hewitt Stephen M, Frevert Charles W


artificial intelligence, asthma, digital pathology, extracellular matrix, glycosaminoglycans, image analysis, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, influenza, machine learning, proteoglycans, stereology