In Science signaling
The killing of tumor cells by CD8+ T cells is suppressed by the tumor microenvironment, and increased expression of inhibitory receptors, including programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), is associated with tumor-mediated suppression of T cells. To find cellular defects triggered by tumor exposure and associated PD-1 signaling, we established an ex vivo imaging approach to investigate the response of antigen-specific, activated effector CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) after interaction with target tumor cells. Although TIL-tumor cell couples readily formed, couple stability deteriorated within minutes. This was associated with impaired F-actin clearing from the center of the cellular interface, reduced Ca2+ signaling, increased TIL locomotion, and impaired tumor cell killing. The interaction of CD8+ T lymphocytes with tumor cell spheroids in vitro induced a similar phenotype, supporting a critical role of direct T cell-tumor cell contact. Diminished engagement of PD-1 within the tumor, but not acute ex vivo blockade, partially restored cell couple maintenance and killing. PD-1 thus contributes to the suppression of TIL function by inducing a state of impaired subcellular organization.
Ambler Rachel, Edmunds Grace L, Tan Sin Lih, Cirillo Silvia, Pernes Jane I, Ruan Xiongtao, Huete-Carrasco Jorge, Wong Carissa C W, Lu Jiahe, Ward Juma, Toti Giulia, Hedges Alan J, Dovedi Simon J, Murphy Robert F, Morgan David J, Wülfing Christoph