Rationale: The clinical application of biomarkers reflecting tumor immune microenvironment is hurdled by the invasiveness of obtaining tissues despite its importance in immunotherapy. We developed a deep learning-based biomarker which noninvasively estimates a tumor immune profile with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Methods: A deep learning model to predict cytolytic activity score (CytAct) using semi-automatically segmented tumors on FDG-PET trained by a publicly available dataset paired with tissue RNA sequencing (n = 93). This model was validated in two independent cohorts of LUAD: SNUH (n = 43) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort (n = 16). The model was applied to the immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) cohort, which consists of patients with metastatic LUAD who underwent ICB treatment (n = 29). Results: The predicted CytAct showed a positive correlation with CytAct of RNA sequencing in validation cohorts (Spearman rho = 0.32, p = 0.04 in SNUH cohort; spearman rho = 0.47, p = 0.07 in TCGA cohort). In ICB cohort, the higher predicted CytAct of individual lesion was associated with more decrement in tumor size after ICB treatment (Spearman rho = -0.54, p < 0.001). Higher minimum predicted CytAct in each patient associated with significantly prolonged progression free survival and overall survival (Hazard ratio 0.25, p = 0.001 and 0.18, p = 0.004, respectively). In patients with multiple lesions, ICB responders had significantly lower variance of predicted CytActs (p = 0.005). Conclusion: The deep learning model that predicts CytAct using FDG-PET of LUAD was validated in independent cohorts. Our approach may be used to noninvasively assess an immune profile and predict outcomes of LUAD patients treated with ICB.
Park Changhee, Na Kwon Joong, Choi Hongyoon, Ock Chan-Young, Ha Seunggyun, Kim Miso, Park Samina, Keam Bhumsuk, Kim Tae Min, Paeng Jin Chul, Park In Kyu, Kang Chang Hyun, Kim Dong-Wan, Cheon Gi-Jeong, Kang Keon Wook, Kim Young Tae, Heo Dae Seog
Immunotherapy, deep learning, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, gene expression profile, tumor microenvironment