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In Frontiers in medicine

Introduction: The incidence of postoperative sepsis is continually increased, while few studies have specifically focused on the risk factors and clinical outcomes associated with the development of sepsis after surgical procedures. The present study aimed to develop a mathematical model for predicting the in-hospital mortality among patients with postoperative sepsis. Materials and Methods: Surgical patients in Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care (MIMIC-III) database who simultaneously fulfilled Sepsis 3.0 and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) criteria at ICU admission were incorporated. We employed both extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) and stepwise logistic regression model to predict the in-hospital mortality among patients with postoperative sepsis. Consequently, the model performance was assessed from the angles of discrimination and calibration. Results: We included 3,713 patients who fulfilled our inclusion criteria, in which 397 (10.7%) patients died during hospitalization, and 3,316 (89.3%) patients survived through discharge. Fluid-electrolyte disturbance, coagulopathy, renal replacement therapy (RRT), urine output, and cardiovascular surgery were important features related to the in-hospital mortality. The XGBoost model had a better performance in both discriminatory ability (c-statistics, 0.835 vs. 0.737 and 0.621, respectively; AUPRC, 0.418 vs. 0.280 and 0.237, respectively) and goodness of fit (visualized by calibration curve) compared to the stepwise logistic regression model and baseline model. Conclusion: XGBoost model has a better performance in predicting hospital mortality among patients with postoperative sepsis in comparison to the stepwise logistic regression model. Machine learning-based algorithm might have significant application in the development of early warning system for septic patients following major operations.

Yao Ren-Qi, Jin Xin, Wang Guo-Wei, Yu Yue, Wu Guo-Sheng, Zhu Yi-Bing, Li Lin, Li Yu-Xuan, Zhao Peng-Yue, Zhu Sheng-Yu, Xia Zhao-Fan, Ren Chao, Yao Yong-Ming


coagulation, extreme gradient boosting, intensive care unit, postoperative sepsis, prediction