Receive a weekly summary and discussion of the top papers of the week by leading researchers in the field.

In European radiology ; h5-index 62.0

OBJECTIVES : The machine learning ischemia risk score (ML-IRS) is a machine learning-based algorithm designed to identify hemodynamically significant coronary disease using quantitative coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). The purpose of this study was to examine whether the ML-IRS can predict revascularization in patients referred for invasive coronary angiography (ICA) after CCTA.

METHODS : This study was a post hoc analysis of a prospective dual-center registry of sequential patients undergoing CCTA followed by ICA within 3 months, referred from inpatient, outpatient, and emergency department settings (n = 352, age 63 ± 10 years, 68% male). The primary outcome was revascularization by either percutaneous coronary revascularization or coronary artery bypass grafting. Blinded readers performed semi-automated quantitative coronary plaque analysis. The ML-IRS was automatically computed. Relationships between clinical risk factors, coronary plaque features, and ML-IRS with revascularization were examined.

RESULTS : The study cohort consisted of 352 subjects with 1056 analyzable vessels. The ML-IRS ranged between 0 and 81% with a median of 18.7% (6.4-34.8). Revascularization was performed in 26% of vessels. Vessels receiving revascularization had higher ML-IRS (33.6% (21.1-55.0) versus 13.0% (4.5-29.1), p < 0.0001), as well as higher contrast density difference, and total, non-calcified, calcified, and low-density plaque burden. ML-IRS, when added to a traditional risk model based on clinical data and stenosis to predict revascularization, resulted in increased area under the curve from 0.69 (95% CI: 0.65-0.72) to 0.78 (95% CI: 0.75-0.81) (p < 0.0001), with an overall continuous net reclassification improvement of 0.636 (95% CI: 0.503-0.769; p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS : ML-IRS from quantitative coronary CT angiography improved the prediction of future revascularization and can potentially identify patients likely to receive revascularization if referred to cardiac catheterization.

KEY POINTS : • Machine learning ischemia risk from quantitative coronary CT angiography was significantly higher in patients who received revascularization versus those who did not receive revascularization. • The machine learning ischemia risk score was significantly higher in patients with invasive fractional flow ≤ 0.8 versus those with > 0.8. • The machine learning ischemia risk score improved the prediction of future revascularization significantly when added to a standard prediction model including stenosis.

Kwan Alan C, McElhinney Priscilla A, Tamarappoo Balaji K, Cadet Sebastien, Hurtado Cecilia, Miller Robert J H, Han Donghee, Otaki Yuka, Eisenberg Evann, Ebinger Joseph E, Slomka Piotr J, Cheng Victor Y, Berman Daniel S, Dey Damini


Artificial intelligence, Cardiac catheterization, Coronary CT angiography, Coronary revascularization, Machine learning