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In Quantum machine intelligence

Motivated by the problem of classifying individuals with a disease versus controls using a functional genomic attribute as input, we present relatively efficient general purpose inner product-based kernel classifiers to classify the test as a normal or disease sample. We encode each training sample as a string of 1 s (presence) and 0 s (absence) representing the attribute's existence across ordered physical blocks of the subdivided genome. Having binary-valued features allows for highly efficient data encoding in the computational basis for classifiers relying on binary operations. Given that a natural distance between binary strings is Hamming distance, which shares properties with bit-string inner products, our two classifiers apply different inner product measures for classification. The active inner product (AIP) is a direct dot product-based classifier whereas the symmetric inner product (SIP) classifies upon scoring correspondingly matching genomic attributes. SIP is a strongly Hamming distance-based classifier generally applicable to binary attribute-matching problems whereas AIP has general applications as a simple dot product-based classifier. The classifiers implement an inner product between N = 2 n dimension test and train vectors using n Fredkin gates while the training sets are respectively entangled with the class-label qubit, without use of an ancilla. Moreover, each training class can be composed of an arbitrary number m of samples that can be classically summed into one input string to effectively execute all test-train inner products simultaneously. Thus, our circuits require the same number of qubits for any number of training samples and are O ( log N ) in gate complexity after the states are prepared. Our classifiers were implemented on ibmqx2 (IBM-Q-team 2019b) and ibmq_16_melbourne (IBM-Q-team 2019a). The latter allowed encoding of 64 training features across the genome.

Kathuria Kunal, Ratan Aakrosh, McConnell Michael, Bekiranov Stefan


Genomic classifier, Quantum algorithms, Quantum classifier, Quantum machine learning