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In European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging ; h5-index 66.0

PURPOSE : In the era of precision medicine, patient-specific dose calculation using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations is deemed the gold standard technique for risk-benefit analysis of radiation hazards and correlation with patient outcome. Hence, we propose a novel method to perform whole-body personalized organ-level dosimetry taking into account the heterogeneity of activity distribution, non-uniformity of surrounding medium, and patient-specific anatomy using deep learning algorithms.

METHODS : We extended the voxel-scale MIRD approach from single S-value kernel to specific S-value kernels corresponding to patient-specific anatomy to construct 3D dose maps using hybrid emission/transmission image sets. In this context, we employed a Deep Neural Network (DNN) to predict the distribution of deposited energy, representing specific S-values, from a single source in the center of a 3D kernel composed of human body geometry. The training dataset consists of density maps obtained from CT images and the reference voxelwise S-values generated using Monte Carlo simulations. Accordingly, specific S-value kernels are inferred from the trained model and whole-body dose maps constructed in a manner analogous to the voxel-based MIRD formalism, i.e., convolving specific voxel S-values with the activity map. The dose map predicted using the DNN was compared with the reference generated using MC simulations and two MIRD-based methods, including Single and Multiple S-Values (SSV and MSV) and Olinda/EXM software package.

RESULTS : The predicted specific voxel S-value kernels exhibited good agreement with the MC-based kernels serving as reference with a mean relative absolute error (MRAE) of 4.5 ± 1.8 (%). Bland and Altman analysis showed the lowest dose bias (2.6%) and smallest variance (CI: - 6.6, + 1.3) for DNN. The MRAE of estimated absorbed dose between DNN, MSV, and SSV with respect to the MC simulation reference were 2.6%, 3%, and 49%, respectively. In organ-level dosimetry, the MRAE between the proposed method and MSV, SSV, and Olinda/EXM were 5.1%, 21.8%, and 23.5%, respectively.

CONCLUSION : The proposed DNN-based WB internal dosimetry exhibited comparable performance to the direct Monte Carlo approach while overcoming the limitations of conventional dosimetry techniques in nuclear medicine.

Akhavanallaf Azadeh, Shiri Iscaac, Arabi Hossein, Zaidi Habib


Deep learning, Internal dosimetry, Monte Carlo, Patient specific, Voxel based