Computer-aided diagnosis (CADx) approaches could help to objectify reporting on prostate mpMRI, but their use in many cases is hampered due to common-built algorithms that are not publicly available. The aim of this study was to develop an open-access CADx algorithm with high accuracy for classification of suspicious lesions in mpMRI of the prostate. This retrospective study was approved by the local ethics commission, with waiver of informed consent. A total of 124 patients with 195 reported lesions were included. All patients received mpMRI of the prostate between 2014 and 2017, and transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided and targeted biopsy within a time period of 30 days. Histopathology of the biopsy cores served as a standard of reference. Acquired imaging parameters included the size of the lesion, signal intensity (T2w images), diffusion restriction, prostate volume, and several dynamic parameters along with the clinical parameters patient age and serum PSA level. Inter-reader agreement of the imaging parameters was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients. The dataset was stratified into a train set and test set (156 and 39 lesions in 100 and 24 patients, respectively). Using the above parameters, a CADx based on an Extreme Gradient Boosting algorithm was developed on the train set, and tested on the test set. Performance optimization was focused on maximizing the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROCAUC). The algorithm was made publicly available on the internet. The CADx reached an ROCAUC of 0.908 during training, and 0.913 during testing (p = 0.93). Additionally, established rule-in and rule-out criteria allowed classifying 35.8% of the malignant and 49.4% of the benign lesions with error rates of <2%. All imaging parameters featured excellent inter-reader agreement. This study presents an open-access CADx for classification of suspicious lesions in mpMRI of the prostate with high accuracy. Applying the provided rule-in and rule-out criteria might facilitate to further stratify the management of patients at risk.
Ellmann Stephan, Schlicht Michael, Dietzel Matthias, Janka Rolf, Hammon Matthias, Saake Marc, Ganslandt Thomas, Hartmann Arndt, Kunath Frank, Wullich Bernd, Uder Michael, Bäuerle Tobias
artificial intelligence, computer-aided diagnosis, machine learning, prostate cancer, prostate mpMRI