Receive a weekly summary and discussion of the top papers of the week by leading researchers in the field.

In AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE : Posterior fossa tumors are the most common pediatric brain tumors. MR imaging is key to tumor detection, diagnosis, and therapy guidance. We sought to develop an MR imaging-based deep learning model for posterior fossa tumor detection and tumor pathology classification.

MATERIALS AND METHODS : The study cohort comprised 617 children (median age, 92 months; 56% males) from 5 pediatric institutions with posterior fossa tumors: diffuse midline glioma of the pons (n = 122), medulloblastoma (n = 272), pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 135), and ependymoma (n = 88). There were 199 controls. Tumor histology served as ground truth except for diffuse midline glioma of the pons, which was primarily diagnosed by MR imaging. A modified ResNeXt-50-32x4d architecture served as the backbone for a multitask classifier model, using T2-weighted MRIs as input to detect the presence of tumor and predict tumor class. Deep learning model performance was compared against that of 4 radiologists.

RESULTS : Model tumor detection accuracy exceeded an AUROC of 0.99 and was similar to that of 4 radiologists. Model tumor classification accuracy was 92% with an F1 score of 0.80. The model was most accurate at predicting diffuse midline glioma of the pons, followed by pilocytic astrocytoma and medulloblastoma. Ependymoma prediction was the least accurate. Tumor type classification accuracy and F1 score were higher than those of 2 of the 4 radiologists.

CONCLUSIONS : We present a multi-institutional deep learning model for pediatric posterior fossa tumor detection and classification with the potential to augment and improve the accuracy of radiologic diagnosis.

Quon J L, Bala W, Chen L C, Wright J, Kim L H, Han M, Shpanskaya K, Lee E H, Tong E, Iv M, Seekins J, Lungren M P, Braun K R M, Poussaint T Y, Laughlin S, Taylor M D, Lober R M, Vogel H, Fisher P G, Grant G A, Ramaswamy V, Vitanza N A, Ho C Y, Edwards M S B, Cheshier S H, Yeom K W