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In Computer methods and programs in biomedicine

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Respiratory gating training is a common technique to increase patient proprioception, with the goal of (e.g.) minimizing the effects of organ motion during radiotherapy. In this work, we devise a system based on autoencoders for classification of regular, apnea and unconstrained breathing patterns (i.e. multiclass).

METHODS : Our approach is based on morphological analysis of the respiratory signals, using an autoencoder trained on regular breathing. The correlation between the input and output of the autoencoder is used to train and test several classifiers in order to select the best. Our approach is evaluated in a novel real-world respiratory gating biofeedback training dataset and on the Apnea-ECG reference dataset.

RESULTS : Accuracies of 95 ± 3.5% and 87 ± 6.6% were obtained for two different datasets, in the classification of breathing and apnea. These results suggest the viability of a generalised model to characterise the breathing patterns under study.

CONCLUSIONS : Using autoencoders to learn respiratory gating training patterns allows a data-driven approach to feature extraction, by focusing only on the signal's morphology. The proposed system is prone to be used in real-time and could potentially be transferred to other domains.

Abreu Mariana, Fred Ana, Valente João, Wang Chen, Plácido da Silva Hugo


Apnea detection, Artificial neural networks, Machine learning, Respiratory gating, Signal processing