Antimicrobial dosing in the intensive care unit (ICU) can be problematic due to various challenges including unique physiological changes observed in critically ill patients and the presence of pathogens with reduced susceptibility. These challenges result in reduced likelihood of standard antimicrobial dosing regimens achieving target exposures associated with optimal patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to explore the various methods for optimisation of antimicrobial dosing in ICU patients. Dosing nomograms developed from pharmacokinetic/statistical models and therapeutic drug monitoring are commonly used. However, recent advances in mathematical and statistical modelling have resulted in the development of novel dosing software that utilise Bayesian forecasting and/or artificial intelligence. These programs utilise therapeutic drug monitoring results to further personalise antimicrobial therapy based on each patient's clinical characteristics. Studies quantifying the clinical and cost benefits associated with dosing software are required before widespread use as a point-of-care system can be justified.
Chai Ming G, Cotta Menino O, Abdul-Aziz Mohd H, Roberts Jason A
Bayesian forecasting, antimicrobials, artificial intelligence, critical illness, nomogram, pharmacokinetics, sepsis, software