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In Methods (San Diego, Calif.)

In the last decade, machine learning and artificial intelligence applications have received a significant boost in performance and attention in both academic research and industry. The success behind most of the recent state-of-the-art methods can be attributed to the latest developments in deep learning. When applied to various scientific domains that are concerned with the processing of non-tabular data, for example, image or text, deep learning has been shown to outperform not only conventional machine learning but also highly specialized tools developed by domain experts. This review aims to summarize AI-based research for GPCR bioactive ligand discovery with a particular focus on the most recent achievements and research trends. To make this article accessible to a broad audience of computational scientists, we provide instructive explanations of the underlying methodology, including overviews of the most commonly used deep learning architectures and feature representations of molecular data. We highlight the latest AI-based research that has led to the successful discovery of GPCR bioactive ligands. However, an equal focus of this review is on the discussion of machine learning-based technology that has been applied to ligand discovery in general and has the potential to pave the way for successful GPCR bioactive ligand discovery in the future. This review concludes with a brief outlook highlighting the recent research trends in deep learning, such as active learning and semi-supervised learning, which have great potential for advancing bioactive ligand discovery.

Raschka Sebastian, Kaufman Benjamin


Deep learning, Drug discovery, GPCR ligands, Graph convolutional neural networks, Machine learning, Molecular representations