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In BMC bioinformatics

BACKGROUND : Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the most common cause of vision loss, is caused by damage to the small blood vessels in the retina. If untreated, it may result in varying degrees of vision loss and even blindness. Since DR is a silent disease that may cause no symptoms or only mild vision problems, annual eye exams are crucial for early detection to improve chances of effective treatment where fundus cameras are used to capture retinal image. However, fundus cameras are too big and heavy to be transported easily and too costly to be purchased by every health clinic, so fundus cameras are an inconvenient tool for widespread screening. Recent technological developments have enabled to use of smartphones in designing small-sized, low-power, and affordable retinal imaging systems to perform DR screening and automated DR detection using image processing methods. In this paper, we investigate the smartphone-based portable retinal imaging systems available on the market and compare their image quality and the automatic DR detection accuracy using a deep learning framework.

RESULTS : Based on the results, iNview retinal imaging system has the largest field of view and better image quality compared with iExaminer, D-Eye, and Peek Retina systems. The overall classification accuracy of smartphone-based systems are sorted as 61%, 62%, 69%, and 75% for iExaminer, D-Eye, Peek Retina, and iNview images, respectively. We observed that the network DR detection performance decreases as the field of view of the smartphone-based retinal systems get smaller where iNview is the largest and iExaminer is the smallest.

CONCLUSIONS : The smartphone-based retina imaging systems can be used as an alternative to the direct ophthalmoscope. However, the field of view of the smartphone-based retina imaging systems plays an important role in determining the automatic DR detection accuracy.

Karakaya Mahmut, Hacisoftaoglu Recep E


D-Eye, Deep learning, Diabetic retinopathy, Peek retina, Retinal imaging, iExaminer, iNview