In Journal of diabetes science and technology ; h5-index 38.0
BACKGROUND : A prototype of a noninvasive glucometer combining skin excitation by a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser with photothermal detection was evaluated in glucose correlation tests including 100 volunteers (41 people with diabetes and 59 healthy people).
METHODS : Invasive reference measurements using a clinical glucometer and noninvasive measurements at a finger of the volunteer were simultaneously recorded in five-minute intervals starting from fasting glucose values for healthy subjects (low glucose values for diabetes patients) over a two-hour period. A glucose range from >50 to <350 mg/dL was covered. Machine learning algorithms were used to predict glucose values from the photothermal spectra. Data were analyzed for the average percent disagreement of the noninvasive measurements with the clinical reference measurement and visualized in consensus error grids.
RESULTS : 98.8% (full data set) and 99.1% (improved algorithm) of glucose results were within Zones A and B of the grid, indicating the highest accuracy level. Less than 1% of the data were in Zone C, and none in Zone D or E. The mean and median percent differences between the invasive as a reference and the noninvasive method were 12.1% and 6.5%, respectively, for the full data set, and 11.3% and 6.4% with the improved algorithm.
CONCLUSIONS : Our results demonstrate that noninvasive blood glucose analysis combining mid-infrared spectroscopy and photothermal detection is feasible and comparable in accuracy with minimally invasive glucometers and finger pricking devices which use test strips. As a next step, a handheld version of the present device for diabetes patients is being developed.
Lubinski Thorsten, Plotka Bartosz, Janik Sergius, Canini Luca, Mäntele Werner
mid-IR spectroscopy, noninvasive blood glucose analysis, photothermal detection, quantum cascade laser (QCL)