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In JNCI cancer spectrum

Background : Cisplatin-based chemotherapy may induce nephrotoxicity. This study presents a random forest predictive model that identifies testicular cancer patients at risk of nephrotoxicity before treatment.

Methods : Clinical data and DNA from saliva samples were collected for 433 patients. These were genotyped on Illumina HumanOmniExpressExome-8 v1.2 (964 193 markers). Clinical and genomics-based random forest models generated a risk score for each individual to develop nephrotoxicity defined as a 20% drop in isotopic glomerular filtration rate during chemotherapy. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was the primary measure to evaluate models. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were used to discuss model clinical utility.

Results : Of 433 patients assessed in this study, 26.8% developed nephrotoxicity after bleomycin-etoposide-cisplatin treatment. Genomic markers found to be associated with nephrotoxicity were located at NAT1, NAT2, and the intergenic region of CNTN6 and CNTN4. These, in addition to previously associated markers located at ERCC1, ERCC2, and SLC22A2, were found to improve predictions in a clinical feature-trained random forest model. Using only clinical data for training the model, an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.635 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.629 to 0.640) was obtained. Retraining the classifier by adding genomics markers increased performance to 0.731 (95% CI = 0.726 to 0.736) and 0.692 (95% CI = 0.688 to 0.696) on the holdout set.

Conclusions : A clinical and genomics-based machine learning algorithm improved the ability to identify patients at risk of nephrotoxicity compared with using clinical variables alone. Novel genetics associations with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity were found for NAT1, NAT2, CNTN6, and CNTN4 that require replication in larger studies before application to clinical practice.

Garcia Sara L, Lauritsen Jakob, Zhang Zeyu, Bandak Mikkel, Dalgaard Marlene D, Nielsen Rikke L, Daugaard Gedske, Gupta Ramneek