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In Annals of translational medicine

Background : The aim of this study was to develop an intelligent system based on a deep learning algorithm for automatically diagnosing fungal keratitis (FK) in in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) images.

Methods : A total of 2,088 IVCM images were included in the training dataset. The positive group consisted of 688 images with fungal hyphae, and the negative group included 1,400 images without fungal hyphae. A total of 535 images in the testing dataset were not included in the training dataset. Deep Residual Learning for Image Recognition (ResNet) was used to build the intelligent system for diagnosing FK automatically. The system was verified by external validation in the testing dataset using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy, specificity and sensitivity.

Results : In the testing dataset, 515 images were diagnosed correctly and 20 were misdiagnosed (including 6 with fungal hyphae and 14 without). The system achieved an AUC of 0.9875 with an accuracy of 0.9626 in detecting fungal hyphae. The sensitivity of the system was 0.9186, with a specificity of 0.9834. When 349 diabetic patients were included in the training dataset, 501 images were diagnosed correctly and thirty-four were misdiagnosed (including 4 with fungal hyphae and 30 without). The AUC of the system was 0.9769. The accuracy, specificity and sensitivity were 0.9364, 0.9889 and 0.8256, respectively.

Conclusions : The intelligent system based on a deep learning algorithm exhibited satisfactory diagnostic performance and effectively classified FK in various IVCM images. The context of this deep learning automated diagnostic system can be extended to other types of keratitis.

Lv Jian, Zhang Kai, Chen Qing, Chen Qi, Huang Wei, Cui Ling, Li Min, Li Jianyin, Chen Lifei, Shen Chaolan, Yang Zhao, Bei Yixuan, Li Lanjian, Wu Xiaohang, Zeng Siming, Xu Fan, Lin Haotian


In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), convolutional neural network, deep learning algorithm, fungal keratitis (FK)