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In BioMed research international ; h5-index 102.0

Background : The purpose of this review is to depict current research and impact of artificial intelligence/machine learning (AI/ML) algorithms on dialysis and kidney transplantation. Published studies were presented from two points of view: What medical aspects were covered? What AI/ML algorithms have been used?

Methods : We searched four electronic databases or studies that used AI/ML in hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD), and kidney transplantation (KT). Sixty-nine studies were split into three categories: AI/ML and HD, PD, and KT, respectively. We identified 43 trials in the first group, 8 in the second, and 18 in the third. Then, studies were classified according to the type of algorithm.

Results : AI and HD trials covered: (a) dialysis service management, (b) dialysis procedure, (c) anemia management, (d) hormonal/dietary issues, and (e) arteriovenous fistula assessment. PD studies were divided into (a) peritoneal technique issues, (b) infections, and (c) cardiovascular event prediction. AI in transplantation studies were allocated into (a) management systems (ML used as pretransplant organ-matching tools), (b) predicting graft rejection, (c) tacrolimus therapy modulation, and (d) dietary issues.

Conclusions : Although guidelines are reluctant to recommend AI implementation in daily practice, there is plenty of evidence that AI/ML algorithms can predict better than nephrologists: volumes, Kt/V, and hypotension or cardiovascular events during dialysis. Altogether, these trials report a robust impact of AI/ML on quality of life and survival in G5D/T patients. In the coming years, one would probably witness the emergence of AI/ML devices that facilitate the management of dialysis patients, thus increasing the quality of life and survival.

Burlacu Alexandru, Iftene Adrian, Jugrin Daniel, Popa Iolanda Valentina, Lupu Paula Madalina, Vlad Cristiana, Covic Adrian