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In Clinical cardiology

BACKGROUND : Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is a well-recognized complication with an ominous outcome.

HYPOTHESIS : Bayesian networks (BNs) not only can reveal the complex interrelationships between predictors and CSA-AKI, but predict the individual risk of CSA-AKI occurrence.

METHODS : During 2013 and 2015, we recruited 5533 eligible participants who underwent cardiac surgery from a tertiary hospital in eastern China. Data on demographics, clinical and laboratory information were prospectively recorded in the electronic medical system and analyzed by gLASSO-logistic regression and BNs.

RESULTS : The incidences of CSA-AKI and severe CSA-AKI were 37.5% and 11.1%. BNs model revealed that gender, left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF), serum creatinine (SCr), serum uric acid (SUA), platelet, and aortic cross-clamp time (ACCT) were found as the parent nodes of CSA-AKI, while ultrafiltration volume and postoperative central venous pressure (CVP) were connected with CSA-AKI as children nodes. In the severe CSA-AKI model, age, proteinuria, and SUA were directly linked to severe AKI; the new nodes of NYHA grade and direct bilirubin created relationships with severe AKI through was related to LVEF, surgery types, and SCr level. The internal AUCs for predicting CSA-AKI and severe AKI were 0.755 and 0.845, which remained 0.736 and 0.816 in the external validation. Given the known variables, the risk for CSA-AKI can be inferred at individual levels based on the established BNs model and prior information.

CONCLUSION : BNs model has a high accuracy, good interpretability, and strong generalizability in predicting CSA-AKI. It facilitates physicians to identify high-risk patients and implement protective strategies to improve the prognosis.

Li Yang, Xu Jiarui, Wang Yimei, Zhang Yunlu, Jiang Wuhua, Shen Bo, Ding Xiaoqiang

2020-May-12

Bayesian networks, acute kidney injury, cardiac surgery, disease prediction, machine learning