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In Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland)

In this paper, we present an architecture of a personalized glucose monitoring system (PGMS). PGMS consists of both invasive and non-invasive sensors on a single device. Initially, blood glucose is measured invasively and non-invasively, to train the machine learning models. Then, paired data and corresponding errors are divided scientifically into six different clusters based on blood glucose ranges as per the patient's diabetic conditions. Each cluster is trained to build the unique error prediction model using an adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) algorithm. Later, these error prediction models undergo personalized calibration based on the patient's characteristics. Once, the errors in predicted non-invasive values are within the acceptable error range, the device gets personalized for a patient to measure the blood glucose non-invasively. We verify PGMS on two different datasets. Performance analysis shows that the mean absolute relative difference (MARD) is reduced exceptionally to 7.3% and 7.1% for predicted values as compared to 25.4% and 18.4% for measured non-invasive glucose values. The Clarke error grid analysis (CEGA) plot for non-invasive predicted values shows 97% data in Zone A and 3% data in Zone B for dataset 1. Moreover, for dataset 2 results echoed with 98% and 2% in Zones A and B, respectively.

Anand Pradeep Kumar, Shin Dong Ryeol, Memon Mudasar Latif


adaptive boosting, clustering, diabetic care, error prediction model, machine learning, non-invasive blood glucose monitoring, personalized calibration