In International journal of computer assisted radiology and surgery
PURPOSE : The registration of a preoperative 3D model, reconstructed, for example, from MRI, to intraoperative laparoscopy 2D images, is the main challenge to achieve augmented reality in laparoscopy. The current systems have a major limitation: they require that the surgeon manually marks the occluding contours during surgery. This requires the surgeon to fully comprehend the non-trivial concept of occluding contours and surgeon time, directly impacting acceptance and usability. To overcome this limitation, we propose a complete framework for object-class occluding contour detection (OC2D), with application to uterus surgery.
METHODS : Our first contribution is a new distance-based evaluation score complying with all the relevant performance criteria. Our second contribution is a loss function combining cross-entropy and two new penalties designed to boost 1-pixel thickness responses. This allows us to train a U-Net end to end, outperforming all competing methods, which tends to produce thick responses. Our third contribution is a dataset of 3818 carefully labelled laparoscopy images of the uterus, which was used to train and evaluate our detector.
RESULTS : Evaluation shows that the proposed detector has a similar false false-negative rate to existing methods but substantially reduces both false-positive rate and response thickness. Finally, we ran a user study to evaluate the impact of OC2D against manually marked occluding contours in augmented laparoscopy. We used 10 recorded gynecologic laparoscopies and involved 5 surgeons. Using OC2D led to a reduction of 3 min and 53 s in surgeon time without sacrificing registration accuracy.
CONCLUSIONS : We provide a new set of criteria and a distance-based measure to evaluate an OC2D method. We propose an OC2D method which outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. The results obtained from the user study indicate that fully automatic augmented laparoscopy is feasible.
François Tom, Calvet Lilian, Madad Zadeh Sabrina, Saboul Damien, Gasparini Simone, Samarakoon Prasad, Bourdel Nicolas, Bartoli Adrien
Augmented reality, Convolutional neural network, Deep learning, Distance-based score, Edge detection, Edge detector evaluation, Laparoscopy