Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent partial to complete upper airway obstructions during sleep, leading to repetitive arousals and oxygen desaturations. Although many OSA biomarkers have been reported individually, only a small subset have been validated through both cross-sectional and intervention studies. Here, we used a highly multiplexed aptamer array (SomaScan) for proteomic analysis of serum samples from 713 individuals in the Stanford Sleep Cohort, a patient-based registry. Outcome measures derived from overnight polysomnography included Obstructive Apnea Hypopnea Index (OAHI), Central Apnea Index (CAI), 2% Oxygen Desaturation index, mean and minimum oxygen saturation indices during sleep. Additionally, a separate intervention-based cohort of 16 individuals was used to assess proteomic profiles pre- and post-intervention with positive airway pressure. After statistical adjustment for age, age of sample, gender and body mass index, OAHI was associated with 65 proteins, predominantly pathways of complement, coagulation, cytokine signaling, and hemostasis which were upregulated. CAI was associated with two proteins including Roundabout homolog 3 (ROBO3), a protein involved in bilateral synchronization of the pre-Bötzinger complex and cystatin F. Analysis of pre- and post- intervention samples were less revealing as only 2 proteins that were differentially associated with active treatment: Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein3 (IGFBP-3) increased while LEAP1 (Hepicidin) decreased with intervention. An OAHI machine learning classifier (OAHI >=15 vs OAHI<15) trained on SomaScan protein measures alone performed robustly, achieving 76% accuracy in a validation dataset. Multiplex protein assays offer diagnostic potential and provide new insights into the biological basis of sleep disordered breathing.
Ambati Aditya, Ju Yo-El, Lin Ling, Olesen Alexander N, Koch Henriette, Hedou Julien Jacques, Leary Eileen B, Sempere Vicente Peris, Mignot Emmanuel, Taheri Shahrad
Apnea, Biomarkers, Oxygen Saturation, Polysomnography, Proteomics, Serum, Sleep Disordered Breathing