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In Briefings in bioinformatics

Modern machine learning techniques (such as deep learning) offer immense opportunities in the field of human biological aging research. Aging is a complex process, experienced by all living organisms. While traditional machine learning and data mining approaches are still popular in aging research, they typically need feature engineering or feature extraction for robust performance. Explicit feature engineering represents a major challenge, as it requires significant domain knowledge. The latest advances in deep learning provide a paradigm shift in eliciting meaningful knowledge from complex data without performing explicit feature engineering. In this article, we review the recent literature on applying deep learning in biological age estimation. We consider the current data modalities that have been used to study aging and the deep learning architectures that have been applied. We identify four broad classes of measures to quantify the performance of algorithms for biological age estimation and based on these evaluate the current approaches. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on possible future directions in biological aging research using deep learning. This study has significant potentials for improving our understanding of the health status of individuals, for instance, based on their physical activities, blood samples and body shapes. Thus, the results of the study could have implications in different health care settings, from palliative care to public health.

Ashiqur Rahman Syed, Giacobbi Peter, Pyles Lee, Mullett Charles, Doretto Gianfranco, Adjeroh Donald A

2020-May-04

anthropometry, artificial intelligence, bioinformatics, biological age, biomarkers, deep learning, electronic health records, health indices, locomotor activity