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In Biomedical optics express

We demonstrate an automatic recognition strategy for terahertz (THz) pulsed signals of breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) based on a wavelet entropy feature extraction and a machine learning classifier. The wavelet packet transform was implemented into the complexity analysis of the transmission THz signal from a breast tissue sample. A novel index of energy to Shannon entropy ratio (ESER) was proposed to distinguish different tissues. Furthermore, the principal component analysis (PCA) method and machine learning classifier were further adopted and optimized for automatic classification of the THz signal from breast IDC sample. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves are all larger than 0.89 for the three adopted classifiers. The best breast IDC recognition performance is with the precision, sensitivity and specificity of 92.85%, 89.66% and 96.67%, respectively. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ESER index together with the machine learning classifier for automatically identifying different breast tissues.

Liu Wenquan, Zhang Rui, Ling Yu, Tang Hongping, She Rongbin, Wei Guanglu, Gong Xiaojing, Lu Yuanfu