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In Proceedings of SPIE--the International Society for Optical Engineering

Osteoporosis is a common age-related disease characterized by reduced bone density and increased fracture-risk. Microstructural quality of trabecular bone (Tb), commonly found at axial skeletal sites and at the end of long bones, is an important determinant of bone-strength and fracture-risk. High-resolution emerging CT scanners enable in vivo measurement of Tb microstructures at peripheral sites. However, resolution-dependence of microstructural measures and wide resolution-discrepancies among various CT scanners together with rapid upgrades in technology warrant data harmonization in CT-based cross-sectional and longitudinal bone studies. This paper presents a deep learning-based method for high-resolution reconstruction of Tb microstructures from low-resolution CT scans using GAN-CIRCLE. A network was developed and evaluated using post-registered ankle CT scans of nineteen volunteers on both low- and high-resolution CT scanners. 9,000 matching pairs of low- and high-resolution patches of size 64×64 were randomly harvested from ten volunteers for training and validation. Another 5,000 matching pairs of patches from nine other volunteers were used for evaluation. Quantitative comparison shows that predicted high-resolution scans have significantly improved structural similarity index (p < 0.01) with true high-resolution scans as compared to the same metric for low-resolution data. Different Tb microstructural measures such as thickness, spacing, and network area density are also computed from low- and predicted high-resolution images, and compared with the values derived from true high-resolution scans. Thickness and network area measures from predicted images showed higher agreement with true high-resolution CT (CCC = [0.95, 0.91]) derived values than the same measures from low-resolution images (CCC = [0.72, 0.88]).

Guha Indranil, Nadeem Syed Ahmed, You Chenyu, Zhang Xiaoliu, Levy Steven M, Wang Ge, Torner James C, Saha Punam K


GAN-CIRCLE, deep learning, high-resolution reconstruction, microstructure, osteoporosis, trabecular bone