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In Journal of thoracic imaging

During the latest years, artificial intelligence, and especially machine learning (ML), have experienced a growth in popularity due to their versatility and potential in solving complex problems. In fact, ML allows the efficient handling of big volumes of data, allowing to tackle issues that were unfeasible before, especially with deep learning, which utilizes multilayered neural networks. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is also experiencing a rise in examination numbers, and ML might help handle the increasing derived information. Moreover, cardiac CT presents some fields wherein ML may be pivotal, such as coronary calcium scoring, CT angiography, and perfusion. In particular, the main applications of ML involve image preprocessing and postprocessing, and the development of risk assessment models based on imaging findings. Concerning image preprocessing, ML can help improve image quality by optimizing acquisition protocols or removing artifacts that may hinder image analysis and interpretation. ML in image postprocessing might help perform automatic segmentations and shorten examination processing times, also providing tools for tissue characterization, especially concerning plaques. The development of risk assessment models from ML using data from cardiac CT could aid in the stratification of patients who undergo cardiac CT in different risk classes and better tailor their treatment to individual conditions. While ML is a powerful tool with great potential, applications in the field of cardiac CT are still expanding, and not yet routinely available in clinical practice due to the need for extensive validation. Nevertheless, ML is expected to have a big impact on cardiac CT in the near future.

Monti Caterina B, Codari Marina, van Assen Marly, De Cecco Carlo N, Vliegenthart Rozemarijn