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In European journal of radiology ; h5-index 47.0

PURPOSE : To assess the diagnostic accuracy of imaging-based deep learning analysis to differentiate between human papillomavirus (HPV) positive and negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) using FDG-PET images.

METHODS : One hundred and twenty patients with OPSCC who underwent pretreatment FDG-PET/CT were included and divided into the training 90 patients and validation 30 patients cohorts. In the training session, 2160 FDG-PET images were analyzed after data augmentation process by a deep learning technique to create a diagnostic model to discriminate between HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCCs. Validation cohort data were subsequently analyzed for confirmation of diagnostic accuracy in determining HPV status by the deep learning-based diagnosis model. In addition, two radiologists evaluated the validation cohort image-data to determine the HPV status based on each tumor's imaging findings.

RESULTS : In deep learning analysis with training session, the diagnostic model using training dataset was successfully created. In the validation session, the deep learning diagnostic model revealed sensitivity of 0.83, specificity of 0.83, positive predictive value of 0.88, negative predictive value of 0.77, and diagnostic accuracy of 0.83, while the visual assessment by two radiologists revealed 0.78, 0.5, 0.7, 0.6, and 0.67 (reader 1), and 0.56, 0.67, 0.71, 0.5, and 0.6 (reader 2), respectively. Chi square test showed a significant difference between deep learning- and radiologist-based diagnostic accuracy (reader 1: P = 0.016, reader 2: P = 0.008).

CONCLUSIONS : Deep learning diagnostic model with FDG-PET imaging data can be useful as one of supportive tools to determine the HPV status in patients with OPSCC.

Fujima Noriyuki, Andreu-Arasa V Carlota, Meibom Sara K, Mercier Gustavo A, Truong Minh Tam, Sakai Osamu


18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography, Deep learning, Human papillomavirus, Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma