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In Annals of translational medicine

Background : Combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma (CHC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) are hard to identify in clinical practice preoperatively. This study looked to develop and confirm a radiomics-based model for preoperative differentiation CHC from ICC.

Methods : The model was developed in 86 patients with ICC and 46 CHC, confirmed in 37 ICC and 20 CHC, and data were collected from January 2014 to December 2018. The radiomics scores (Radscores) were built from radiomics features of contrast-enhanced computed tomography in 12 regions of interest (ROI). The Radscore and clinical-radiologic factors were integrated into the combined model using multivariable logistic regression. The best-combined model constructed the radiomics-based nomogram, and the performance was assessed concerning its calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness.

Results : The radiomics features extracted from tumor ROI in the arterial phase (AP) with preprocessing were selected to build Radscore and yielded an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.800 and 0.789 in training and validation cohorts, respectively. The radiomics-based model contained Radscore and 4 clinical-radiologic factors showed the best performance (training cohort, AUC =0.942; validation cohort, AUC =0.942) and good calibration (training cohort, AUC =0.935; validation cohort, AUC =0.931).

Conclusions : The proposed radiomics-based model may be used conveniently to the preoperatively differentiate CHC from ICC.

Zhang Jun, Huang Zixing, Cao Likun, Zhang Zhen, Wei Yi, Zhang Xin, Song Bin


Combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma (CHC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), machine learning, radiomics