In Frontiers in neuroscience ; h5-index 72.0
Hardware architectures composed of resistive cross-point device arrays can provide significant power and speed benefits for deep neural network training workloads using stochastic gradient descent (SGD) and backpropagation (BP) algorithm. The training accuracy on this imminent analog hardware, however, strongly depends on the switching characteristics of the cross-point elements. One of the key requirements is that these resistive devices must change conductance in a symmetrical fashion when subjected to positive or negative pulse stimuli. Here, we present a new training algorithm, so-called the "Tiki-Taka" algorithm, that eliminates this stringent symmetry requirement. We show that device asymmetry introduces an unintentional implicit cost term into the SGD algorithm, whereas in the "Tiki-Taka" algorithm a coupled dynamical system simultaneously minimizes the original objective function of the neural network and the unintentional cost term due to device asymmetry in a self-consistent fashion. We tested the validity of this new algorithm on a range of network architectures such as fully connected, convolutional and LSTM networks. Simulation results on these various networks show that the accuracy achieved using the conventional SGD algorithm with symmetric (ideal) device switching characteristics is matched in accuracy achieved using the "Tiki-Taka" algorithm with non-symmetric (non-ideal) device switching characteristics. Moreover, all the operations performed on the arrays are still parallel and therefore the implementation cost of this new algorithm on array architectures is minimal; and it maintains the aforementioned power and speed benefits. These algorithmic improvements are crucial to relax the material specification and to realize technologically viable resistive crossbar arrays that outperform digital accelerators for similar training tasks.
Gokmen Tayfun, Haensch Wilfried
analog hardware accelerator, crossbar array, deep learning, memristor, resistive device, resistive processing unit, training algorithms