In Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine
Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is an important tool for the non-invasive assessment of cardiovascular disease. However, CMR suffers from long acquisition times due to the need of obtaining images with high temporal and spatial resolution, different contrasts, and/or whole-heart coverage. In addition, both cardiac and respiratory-induced motion of the heart during the acquisition need to be accounted for, further increasing the scan time. Several undersampling reconstruction techniques have been proposed during the last decades to speed up CMR acquisition. These techniques rely on acquiring less data than needed and estimating the non-acquired data exploiting some sort of prior information. Parallel imaging and compressed sensing undersampling reconstruction techniques have revolutionized the field, enabling 2- to 3-fold scan time accelerations to become standard in clinical practice. Recent scientific advances in CMR reconstruction hinge on the thriving field of artificial intelligence. Machine learning reconstruction approaches have been recently proposed to learn the non-linear optimization process employed in CMR reconstruction. Unlike analytical methods for which the reconstruction problem is explicitly defined into the optimization process, machine learning techniques make use of large data sets to learn the key reconstruction parameters and priors. In particular, deep learning techniques promise to use deep neural networks (DNN) to learn the reconstruction process from existing datasets in advance, providing a fast and efficient reconstruction that can be applied to all newly acquired data. However, before machine learning and DNN can realize their full potentials and enter widespread clinical routine for CMR image reconstruction, there are several technical hurdles that need to be addressed. In this article, we provide an overview of the recent developments in the area of artificial intelligence for CMR image reconstruction. The underlying assumptions of established techniques such as compressed sensing and low-rank reconstruction are briefly summarized, while a greater focus is given to recent advances in dictionary learning and deep learning based CMR reconstruction. In particular, approaches that exploit neural networks as implicit or explicit priors are discussed for 2D dynamic cardiac imaging and 3D whole-heart CMR imaging. Current limitations, challenges, and potential future directions of these techniques are also discussed.
Bustin Aurélien, Fuin Niccolo, Botnar René M, Prieto Claudia
AI, cardiac MRI, deep learning, dictionary learning, reconstruction, undersampling