In Artificial intelligence in medicine ; h5-index 34.0
Breast cancer is the most prevalent invasive type of cancer among women. The mortality rate of the disease can be reduced considerably through timely prognosis and felicitous treatment planning, by utilizing the computer aided detection and diagnosis techniques. With the advent of whole slide image (WSI) scanners for digitizing the histopathological tissue samples, there is a drastic increase in the availability of digital histopathological images. However, these samples are often unlabeled and hence they need labeling to be done through manual annotations by domain experts and experienced pathologists. But this annotation process required for acquiring high quality large labeled training set for nuclear atypia scoring is a tedious, expensive and time consuming job. Active learning techniques have achieved widespread acceptance in reducing this human effort in annotating the data samples. In this paper, we explore the possibilities of active learning on nuclear pleomorphism scoring over a non-Euclidean framework, the Riemannian manifold. Active learning technique adopted for the cancer grading is in the batch-mode framework, that adaptively identifies the apt batch size along with the batch of instances to be queried, following a submodular optimization framework. Samples for annotation are selected considering the diversity and redundancy between the pair of samples, based on the kernelized Riemannian distance measures such as log-Euclidean metrics and the two Bregman divergences - Stein and Jeffrey divergences. Results of the adaptive Batch Mode Active Learning on the Riemannian metric show a superior performance when compared with the state-of-the-art techniques for breast cancer nuclear pleomorphism scoring, as it makes use of the information from the unlabeled samples.
Das Asha, Nair Madhu S, Peter David S
Batch Mode Active Learning, Histopathological Image Analysis, Nuclear Atypia Scoring, Riemannian Manifold, Submodular Optimization