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In Nucleic acids research ; h5-index 217.0

IRF3, IRF5 and IRF9 are transcription factors, which play distinct roles in the regulation of antiviral and inflammatory responses. The determinants that mediate IRF-specific enhancer selection are not fully understood. To uncover regions occupied predominantly by IRF3, IRF5 or IRF9, we performed ChIP-seq experiments in activated murine dendritic cells. The identified regions were analysed with respect to the enrichment of DNA motifs, the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) and ISRE half-site variants, and chromatin accessibility. Using a machine learning method, we investigated the predictability of IRF-dominance. We found that IRF5-dominant regions differed fundamentally from the IRF3- and IRF9-dominant regions: ISREs were rare, while the NFKB motif and special ISRE half-sites, such as 5'-GAGA-3' and 5'-GACA-3', were enriched. IRF3- and IRF9-dominant regions were characterized by the enriched ISRE motif and lower frequency of accessible chromatin. Enrichment analysis and the machine learning method uncovered the features that favour IRF3 or IRF9 dominancy (e.g. a tripartite form of ISRE and motifs for NF-κB for IRF3, and the GAS motif and certain ISRE variants for IRF9). This study contributes to our understanding of how IRF members, which bind overlapping sets of DNA sequences, can initiate signal-dependent responses without activating superfluous or harmful programmes.

Csumita Mária, Csermely Attila, Horvath Attila, Nagy Gergely, Monori Fanny, Göczi Loránd, Orbea Hans-Acha, Reith Walter, Széles Lajos