In Medical image analysis ; h5-index 0.0
In this study, we propose a novel anomaly detection model targeting subtle brain lesions in multiparametric MRI. To compensate for the lack of annotated data adequately sampling the heterogeneity of such pathologies, we cast this problem as an outlier detection problem and introduce a novel configuration of unsupervised deep siamese networks to learn normal brain representations using a series of non-pathological brain scans. The proposed siamese network, composed of stacked convolutional autoencoders as subnetworks is designed to map patches extracted from healthy control scans only and centered at the same spatial localization to 'close' representations with respect to the chosen metric in a latent space. It is based on a novel loss function combining a similarity term and a regularization term compensating for the lack of dissimilar pairs. These latent representations are then fed into oc-SVM models at voxel-level to produce anomaly score maps. We evaluate the performance of our brain anomaly detection model to detect subtle epilepsy lesions in multiparametric (T1-weighted, FLAIR) MRI exams considered as normal (MRI-negative). Our detection model trained on 75 healthy subjects and validated on 21 epilepsy patients (with 18 MRI-negatives) achieves a maximum sensitivity of 61% on the MRI-negative lesions, identified among the 5 most suspicious detections on average. It is shown to outperform detection models based on the same architecture but with stacked convolutional or Wasserstein autoencoders as unsupervised feature extraction mechanisms.
Alaverdyan Zaruhi, Jung Julien, Bouet Romain, Lartizien Carole
Anomaly detection, Brain lesions, Deep learning, Regularized siamese network, Unsupervised representation learning, Wasserstein autoencoder