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In Clinical and translational gastroenterology ; h5-index 0.0

OBJECTIVES : Application of artificial intelligence in gastrointestinal endoscopy is increasing. The aim of the study was to examine the accuracy of convolutional neural network (CNN) using endoscopic images for evaluating Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection.

METHODS : Patients who received upper endoscopy and gastric biopsies at Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital (January 2015-June 2015) were retrospectively searched. A novel Computer-Aided Decision Support System that incorporates CNN model (ResNet-50) based on endoscopic gastric images was developed to evaluate for H. pylori infection. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated in an independent validation cohort. H. pylori infection was defined by the presence of H. pylori on immunohistochemistry testing on gastric biopsies and/or a positive 13C-urea breath test.

RESULTS : Of 1,959 patients, 1,507 (77%) including 847 (56%) with H. pylori infection (11,729 gastric images) were assigned to the derivation cohort, and 452 (23%) including 310 (69%) with H. pylori infection (3,755 images) were assigned to the validation cohort. The area under the curve for a single gastric image was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92-0.94) with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 81.4% (95% CI 79.8%-82.9%), 90.1% (95% CI 88.4%-91.7%), and 84.5% (95% CI 83.3%-85.7%), respectively, using an optimal cutoff value of 0.3. Area under the curve for multiple gastric images (8.3 ± 3.3) per patient was 0.97 (95% CI 0.96-0.99) with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 91.6% (95% CI 88.0%-94.4%), 98.6% (95% CI 95.0%-99.8%), and 93.8% (95% CI 91.2%-95.8%), respectively, using an optimal cutoff value of 0.4.

DISCUSSION : In this pilot study, CNN using multiple archived gastric images achieved high diagnostic accuracy for the evaluation of H. pylori infection.

Zheng Wenfang, Zhang Xu, Kim John J, Zhu Xinjian, Ye Guoliang, Ye Bin, Wang Jianping, Luo Songlin, Li Jingjing, Yu Tao, Liu Jiquan, Hu Weiling, Si Jianmin