In Royal Society open science ; h5-index 0.0
The aim of this study was to provide automated identification of postural point-features required to estimate the location and orientation of the head, multi-segmented trunk and arms from videos of the clinical test 'Segmental Assessment of Trunk Control' (SATCo). Three expert operators manually annotated 13 point-features in every fourth image of 177 short (5-10 s) videos (25 Hz) of 12 children with cerebral palsy (aged: 4.52 ± 2.4 years), participating in SATCo testing. Linear interpolation for the remaining images resulted in 30 825 annotated images. Convolutional neural networks were trained with cross-validation, giving held-out test results for all children. The point-features were estimated with error 4.4 ± 3.8 pixels at approximately 100 images per second. Truncal segment angles (head, neck and six thoraco-lumbar-pelvic segments) were estimated with error 6.4 ± 2.8°, allowing accurate classification (F1 > 80%) of deviation from a reference posture at thresholds up to 3°, 3° and 2°, respectively. Contact between arm point-features (elbow and wrist) and supporting surface was classified at F1 = 80.5%. This study demonstrates, for the first time, technical feasibility to automate the identification of (i) a sitting segmental posture including individual trunk segments, (ii) changes away from that posture, and (iii) support from the upper limb, required for the clinical SATCo.
Cunningham Ryan, Sánchez María B, Butler Penelope B, Southgate Matthew J, Loram Ian D
SATCo, cerebral palsy, deep learning, feature tracking, pose estimation, video analysis