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In Translational vision science & technology ; h5-index 0.0

Purpose : This study describes the initial development of a deep learning algorithm, ROP.AI, to automatically diagnose retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) plus disease in fundal images.

Methods : ROP.AI was trained using 6974 fundal images from Australasian image databases. Each image was given a diagnosis as part of real-world routine ROP screening and classified as normal or plus disease. The algorithm was trained using 80% of the images and validated against the remaining 20% within a hold-out test set. Performance in diagnosing plus disease was evaluated against an external set of 90 images. Performance in detecting pre-plus disease was also tested. As a screening tool, the algorithm's operating point was optimized for sensitivity and negative predictive value, and its performance reevaluated.

Results : For plus disease diagnosis within the 20% hold-out test set, the algorithm achieved a 96.6% sensitivity, 98.0% specificity, and 97.3% ± 0.7% accuracy. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.993. Within the independent test set, the algorithm achieved a 93.9% sensitivity, 80.7% specificity, and 95.8% negative predictive value. For detection of pre-plus and plus disease, the algorithm achieved 81.4% sensitivity, 80.7% specificity, and 80.7% negative predictive value. Following the identification of an optimized operating point, the algorithm diagnosed plus disease with a 97.0% sensitivity and 97.8% negative predictive value.

Conclusions : ROP.AI is a deep learning algorithm able to automatically diagnose ROP plus disease with high sensitivity and negative predictive value.

Translational Relevance : In the context of increasing global disease burden, future development may improve access to ROP diagnosis and care.

Tan Zachary, Simkin Samantha, Lai Connie, Dai Shuan

2019-Nov

artificial intelligence, deep learning, retinopathy of prematurity