In Ophthalmology ; h5-index 90.0
PURPOSE : To develop and evaluate a deep learning system for differentiating between eyes with and without glaucomatous visual field damage (GVFD) and predicting the severity of GFVD from spectral domain OCT (SD OCT) optic nerve head images.
DESIGN : Evaluation of a diagnostic technology.
PARTICIPANTS : A total of 9765 visual field (VF) SD OCT pairs collected from 1194 participants with and without GVFD (1909 eyes).
METHODS : Deep learning models were trained to use SD OCT retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness maps, RNFL en face images, and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO) images to identify eyes with GVFD and predict quantitative VF mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), and mean VF sectoral pattern deviation (PD) from SD OCT data.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES : Deep learning models were compared with mean RNFL thickness for identifying GVFD using area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity. For predicting MD, PSD, and mean sectoral PD, models were evaluated using R2 and mean absolute error (MAE).
RESULTS : In the independent test dataset, the deep learning models based on RNFL en face images achieved an AUC of 0.88 for identifying eyes with GVFD and 0.82 for detecting mild GVFD significantly (P < 0.001) better than using mean RNFL thickness measurements (AUC = 0.82 and 0.73, respectively). Deep learning models outperformed standard RNFL thickness measurements in predicting all quantitative VF metrics. In predicting MD, deep learning models based on RNFL en face images achieved an R2 of 0.70 and MAE of 2.5 decibels (dB) compared with 0.45 and 3.7 dB for RNFL thickness measurements. In predicting mean VF sectoral PD, deep learning models achieved high accuracy in the inferior nasal (R2 = 0.60) and superior nasal (R2 = 0.67) sectors, moderate accuracy in inferior (R2 = 0.26) and superior (R2 = 0.35) sectors, and lower accuracy in the central (R2 = 0.15) and temporal (R2 = 0.12) sectors.
CONCLUSIONS : Deep learning models had high accuracy in identifying eyes with GFVD and predicting the severity of functional loss from SD OCT images. Accurately predicting the severity of GFVD from SD OCT imaging can help clinicians more effectively individualize the frequency of VF testing to the individual patient.
Christopher Mark, Bowd Christopher, Belghith Akram, Goldbaum Michael H, Weinreb Robert N, Fazio Massimo A, Girkin Christopher A, Liebmann Jeffrey M, Zangwill Linda M