Background and Purpose- The availability of and expertise to interpret advanced neuroimaging recommended in the guideline-based endovascular stroke therapy (EST) evaluation are limited. Here, we develop and validate an automated machine learning-based method that evaluates for large vessel occlusion (LVO) and ischemic core volume in patients using a widely available modality, computed tomography angiogram (CTA). Methods- From our prospectively maintained stroke registry and electronic medical record, we identified patients with acute ischemic stroke and stroke mimics with contemporaneous CTA and computed tomography perfusion (CTP) with RAPID (IschemaView) post-processing as a part of the emergent stroke workup. A novel convolutional neural network named DeepSymNet was created and trained to identify LVO as well as infarct core from CTA source images, against CTP-RAPID definitions. Model performance was measured using 10-fold cross validation and receiver-operative curve area under the curve (AUC) statistics. Results- Among the 297 included patients, 224 (75%) had acute ischemic stroke of which 179 (60%) had LVO. Mean CTP-RAPID ischemic core volume was 23±42 mL. LVO locations included ICA (13%), M1 (44%), and M2 (21%). The DeepSymNet algorithm autonomously learned to identify the intracerebral vasculature on CTA and detected LVO with AUC 0.88. The method was also able to determine infarct core as defined by CTP-RAPID from the CTA source images with AUC 0.88 and 0.90 (ischemic core ≤30 mL and ≤50 mL). These findings were maintained in patients presenting in early (0-6 hours) and late (6-24 hours) time windows (AUCs 0.90 and 0.91, ischemic core ≤50 mL). DeepSymNet probabilities from CTA images corresponded with CTP-RAPID ischemic core volumes as a continuous variable with r=0.7 (Pearson correlation, P<0.001). Conclusions- These results demonstrate that the information needed to perform the neuroimaging evaluation for endovascular therapy with comparable accuracy to advanced imaging modalities may be present in CTA, and the ability of machine learning to automate the analysis.
Sheth Sunil A, Lopez-Rivera Victor, Barman Arko, Grotta James C, Yoo Albert J, Lee Songmi, Inam Mehmet E, Savitz Sean I, Giancardo Luca
endovascular procedures, machine learning, magnetic resonance imaging, neuroimaging, stroke